As a result, a secession convention was held at Mesilla, New Mexico … However, the Confederate forces lost precious supplies and several horses, forcing them to retreat. It’s a crazy thing to think that 154 years ago today we decided that it was acceptable to kill off a large percentage of our male population between the ages of 18 and 30. Subsequently a second convention was held in Tucson on March 28, 1861, chaired by Mark Aldrich, who had been Tucson's first mayor. [17] As the war lengthened and Union troops were withdrawn to fight elsewhere, famed explorer and frontiersman Kit Carson helped organize and command the 1st New Mexico Cavalry, a militia unit, to engage in campaigns against the Apache, Navajo, and Comanche in New Mexico and Texas, as well as participating in the earlier Battle of Valverde against the Confederates. Both the Confederates and the Federal government attempted to control the Apaches. I, John R. Baylor, lieutenant-colonel, commanding the Confederate Army in the Territory of Arizona, hereby take possession of said Territory in the name and behalf of the Confederate States of America. It also stipulated that slavery was to be abolished in the new territory. In 1861, Federal troops went east, which left white civilians unprotected from Indian attacks. After two months of debate, the legislation passed on January 13, 1862, and the territory was officially created by proclamation of President Jefferson Davis on February 14,[9] with this proclamation: "I, Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America, do issue this, my proclamation, declaring said "Act to organize the Territory of Arizona" to be in full force and operation, and that I have proceeded to appoint the officers therein provided to be appointed in and for said Territory. However, when the Union found out that the Texans were coming into the territory, they reinforced the fort. With Union Troops gone from the southern part of New Mexico Territory as well as Texas, the 2nd Texas Mounted Rifles under Lieutenant Colonel John R. Baylor were sent to occupy the series of forts along the western Texas frontier, as well as advancing into New Mexico to attack the Union forts along the Rio Grande River. Brig. When the Confederates refused, the Union opened fire with his mountain howitzers and the infantry was ordered to advance. DiegoArchuleta(Gen)HstMilitOccNM.jpg 327 × 495; 100 KB. Arizona became its own territory in 1863 during the war. [2] In April 1860, impatient for Congress to act, a convention of thirty-one delegates met in Tucson and adopted a constitution for a provisional territorial government of the area south of 34 degrees north. As the main route to California, the New Mexico Territory was disputed territory during the American Civil War, resulting in settlers in the region carved out by the Gadsden Purchase willingly joining the Confederate States of America, while much of the rest of the present day state of New Mexico remained loyal to the Union. ", Baylor's subsequent dismantling of the existing Union forts in the territory left the white settlers at the mercy of the Apache, who quickly gained control of the area and forced many of the white settlers to seek refuge in Tucson. … Thin Air Books, 2017 ISBN: 9781534715974. [11], The following month, in March 1862, the U.S. House of Representatives, now devoid of the southern delegates and controlled by Republicans, passed a bill to create the United States Arizona Territory using the north-south border of the 107th meridian. Dr. Pittman brings the Civil War in New Mexico to life with this book. Even though the column withstood the Apaches and established Fort Bowie to secure the pass, the Californians and the Apache would continue fighting throughout the War and beyond. One of the most ambitious Confederate campaigns of the Trans-Mississippi Theater, the rebels hoped to establish control of the American West and to open an additional theater in the war. Additionally, over 8,000 troops from New Mexico Territory served the Union. [5], Early in war, the Confederacy regarded the territory as a valuable route for possible access to the Pacific Ocean, with the specific intention of capturing California. The New Mexico Territory, which included the areas which became the modern U.S. states of New Mexico and Arizona as well as the southern part of Nevada, played a role in the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War. As a result, a secession convention was held at Mesilla, New Mexico in March 1861, where citizens voted to join the Confederacy and formed militia companies to defend themselves. Known as the Second Battle of Mesilla, the engagement ended with a Union victory though neither side had any casualties. Frazier, pp. [15], In April 1862, a small party of Confederates moving northwest from Tucson met a Union cavalry patrol near Stanwix Station. Prior to the Civil War, residents in the southern part of New Mexico Territory had long complained that the territorial government in Santa Fe was too far away to properly address their concerns. [1], After the expansion of the New Mexico Territory in 1853 by the Gadsden Purchase, proposals for a division of the territory and the organization of a separate Territory of Arizona in the southern half of the territory were advanced as early as 1856. A company of Arizona Confederates quickly joined Baylor there. Die südliche Hälfte schloss sich der Sezession an. On August 1, 1861, Baylor declared the establishment of the Confederate Arizona Territory, installed himself as the new territory’s military governor, made Mesilla the capitol, and declared martial law. He also planned to recruit new soldiers along the way, certain that there was much Confederate sentiment and cooperation in the sparsely defended deserts. However, the territorial government continued to operate out of Texas, and Confederate troops marched under the Arizona flag until the end of the war. Description. Despite the Union regulars, 1st Colorado Infantry, and New Mexican Volunteers being defeated on the battlefield, they ultimately won the campaign; the battle was later dubbed as the "Gettysburg of the West". When the U.S. claimed the New Mexico Territory, after the Mexican-American War, the U.S. set up a string of forts across the Territory to protect travelers and settlers from Indian raids, and to keep an eye out for other possible uprisings. In the agony of a nation at war with itself, the Confederate invasion of New Mexico Territory was a minor drama. A detachment of Hunter's force traveled along the Overland Mail route and destroyed caches of hay to prevent their use by Union forces; it traveled to within eighty miles of Fort Yuma. The plan was to gain control of the southwestern part of the continent. The southern part of the New Mexico Territory, which was the Gadsen Purchase, sided with the Confederacy, while the northern section was Union.New Mexico supplied 26 Union military units. New Mexico and the Civil War book. Their sense of abandonment was further confirmed at the beginning the Civil War, when regular troops were withdrawn from the area. The use of a north-south border rather than an east-west one had the effect of denying a de facto ratification of the Confederate Arizona Territory. The Wikipedia article, New Mexico in the American Civil War, has more … A territorial secession convention was held at Mesilla on March 16, 1861 that adopted an ordinance of secession, and called on the citizens in western Arizona to "join us in this movement". Canby decided to concentrate his men at Fort Craig in an effort to hold off an anticipated Confederate advance northward toward Santa Fe. Your email address will not be published. Both Confederate and Union governments claimed jurisdiction and … On July 24, 1861, 250 troops of the 2nd Texas Mounted Rifles crossed the Rio Grande River into Mesilla, arriving to the cheers of the population. New Mexico war damals noch kein Bundesstaat, sondern lediglich Territorium. [18], Confederate Arizona Territory, which split off from New Mexico Territory in 1861, was the first U.S. incarnation of Arizona which would come into existence as Arizona Territory in 1863. About six miles southeast of Mesilla sat the tiny post of Fort Fillmore. [3], However, due to the small number of inhabitants in the proposed territory, the U.S. Congress continued to refuse to recognize any proceedings from any of the conventions being held in this area. of names: Battalion, New Mexico Volunteers : 663 names : New Mexico Mounted Infantry : 4 names New Mexico Mounted Volunteers : 4 names: 1st Regiment, New Mexico Cavalry : 3,533 names: 1st Regiment, New Mexico Infantry (Old) 1,280 names: 1st Regiment, New Mexico Infantry (New) 2,058 names: 1st Regiment, New Mexico Militia Infantry (3 … It was incredibly ambitious and not at all expected. The Rebels dreamed of access to the Santa Fe Trail and the gold mines of California and Colorado. Die Konföderation nahm sie als Arizona-Territorium mit Mesilla als Hauptstadt auf. The house bill stipulated that Tucson was to be capital. The goal of expanding Confederate influence into southern California and to the Pacific Ocean was never realized. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. After three Union enlisted men died and two officers and four other men were wounded, Lynde ordered a return to the fort. Your email address will not be published. Governor Baylor approved the proceedings, and Delegate Granville H. Oury was sent off to Richmond, Virginia on October 1, 1861.[8]. For all purposes herein specified, and until otherwise decreed or provided, the Territory of Arizona shall comprise all that portion of New Mexico lying south of the thirty-fourth parallel of north latitude. The Civil War in New Mexico. In February 1862, Sibley advanced northward from Fort Thorn up the valley of the Rio Grande, toward the territorial capital … leaders as well as President Jefferson Davis. During this time, the residents of New Mexico Territory continuously c… This location may seem odd to you unless you’re familiar with the relationship of Texas and New Mexico. The New Mexico Campaign was an endeavor by the Confederacy to invade what was then known as New Mexico Territory. Other Names: La Glorieta Pass. Foreseeing the oncoming attack, Lynde destroyed the ammunition and supplies and the fort and retreated northeast towards Fort Stanton, some 150 miles to the northeast. Media in category "People of New Mexico in the American Civil War" The following 7 files are in this category, out of 7 total. Confederate sympathizers there had … Mangas Coloradas and Cochise led a series of raids on white civilians that left dozens dead and spread fear and terror across the territory. After the fort was abandoned by the Union garrison, Baylor's force cut off the fleeing Union troops and forced them to surrender. Tag: New Mexico Civil War Book Review: Valverde. On August 1, Baylor issued a "The Proclamation to the People of the Territory of Arizona", taking possession of the territory for the Confederacy, with Mesilla as the capital and himself as the governor. Later a similar proposal was defeated in the Senate. Less than a year later, another battle would be fought near Mesilla on June 1, 1862, between Arizona rebels and the New Mexican Militia. [14], Capt. You see, the Texas Republic tried to invade New Mexico twenty years before the Civil War, and it didn’t go well. It is well written through solid research and supporting maps showing the consequences of the South would of won this little-known campaign for the control of the western United States. That month he was replaced by Henry Connelly, a native of New Mexico who would serve as governor for the remainder of the war. Taking the offense, Lynde left a small force behind to guard the fort and marched on Mesilla on July 25th. Their sense of abandonment was further confirmed at the beginning the Civil War, when regular troops were withdrawn from the area. Required fields are marked *. JosFChaves.jpg 3,127 × 3,742; 1.09 MB. The Confederate Army of New Mexico from Texas briefly occupied southern New Mexico Territory, arriving in February 1862, and tried to push north to Colorado. Dieses Stockfoto: Civil War Reenactment Schlachten des Glorieta Pass und Apache Canyon In New Mexico. Union troops re-captured the territory in early 1862, forcing the Confederates to retreat following the Battle of Glorieta Pass in March. Hunter's frontiersmen spent most of their time expelling Union supporters and skirmishing with Federal troops, so the order was never enforced. (Last Privacy Policy Update July 2020), Byways & Historic Trails – Great Drives in America, Soldiers and Officers in American History, Alva Gould – Discoverer of the Famous Gould and Curry Mine, Honest Miner To a Poker-Playing Politician, Old Tom – A Typical Mining Camp Character, Canyons of the Ancients National Monument, Colorado. In pursuit on July 27th, the Confederates captured a number of straggling Union troops and soon overtook Lynde’s command, who had been reduced to only about 100 men as they crossed the dry Organ Mountains. The first proposals for the Arizona Territory were not based on the current east-west scheme, but rather a north-south division. The first capital was at Fort Whipple, followed by Prescott, in the northern Union-controlled area. Prior to the Civil War, residents in the southern part of New Mexico Territory had long complained that the territorial government in Santa Fe was too far away to properly address their concerns. The plan called for an invasion along the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains, seizing Colorado Territory, which was in the height of a gold rush, as well as Fort Laramie, Wyoming, which was the most important garrison along the Oregon Trail. He was correct that Sibley was planning a new offensive. Sibley’s New Mexico Campaign (February-March 1862). Drawing on many sources the campaign comes alive though solid writing. That same night, Baylor’s men managed to capture 85 of the fort’s horses, which formed most of the fort’s transportation. Sherod Hunter at the head of the Confederate Arizona Rangers, occupied southern Arizona during the spring of 1862. The first proposal dates from a conference held in Tucson that convened on August 29, 1856. Includes bibliography. - D2B8Y6 aus der Alamy-Bibliothek mit Millionen von Stockfotos, Illustrationen und Vektorgrafiken in hoher Auflösung herunterladen. The obelisk was known as Soldiers Monument and had been built to honor Civil War-era soldiers. Henry Connelly (New Mexico Governor).jpg 361 × 498; 27 KB. No need to register, buy now! Home › Learn › Civil War › Sibley's New Mexico Campaign. Diese Gegend war von Weißen nur wenig bevölkert und spielte im Krieg nur eine untergeordnete Rolle. Once again, Granville Oury was re-elected as a congressman to the Confederate States Congress. Carleton's troops later fought the Battle of Apache Pass after being ambushed by Cochise and Mangas Coloradas. Confederate power in the New Mexico Territory was effectively broken after the Battle of Glorieta Pass in 1862. The proposals arose from concerns about the effectiveness of the territorial government in Santa Fe to administer the newly acquired southern portions of the territory.[2]. He bore orders from Governor Baylor to lure the Apaches into Tucson for peace talks and exterminate the adults. Sibley then planned on focusing on areas farther west to attack mineral-rich Nevada and California. The Arizona Organic Act passed the Senate in February 1863 without the Tucson-as-capital stipulation, and was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on February 24, the date of the official organization of the U.S. Arizona Territory. The armies were small, but the stakes were high: control of the Southwest. The demonstration took place in … Sibley’s New Mexico Campaign. The Tucson convention ratified the Mesilla convention, and provisional officers were elected for the newly established Provisional Confederate Territory of Arizona with Dr. Lewis Owings as its governor, and Granville H. Oury as its first delegate to the Confederate States Congress, who immediately began petitioning for admission. A weekend-long gay dance blowout held at a beach resort on the West Coast of Mexico has created enough social-media controversy and in-fighting to be dubbed “gay civil war.” Able to repulse the oncoming Union troops, both sides then began skirmishing at long range. Other leading and trailing events are also included for perspective. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. In 1861 the Confederacy claimed the southern tract as its own Arizona Territory and waged the ambitious New Mexico Campaign in an attempt to control the American Southwest and open up access to Union California. Texas Congressman John Reagan introduced a bill on November 22, 1861 to formally create the Territory of Arizona. Battle of Glorieta Pass . The proposals arose from concerns about the effectiveness of the territorial government in Santa Fe to administer the newly acquired south… The extremely ambitious plan was made more manageable by carrying minimal supplies, instead, capturing supplies at Union forts and depots along the Santa Fe Trail and living off the land. The Battle of Mesilla led to the official establishing of a Confederate Arizona Territory, which would consist of the southern portion of the New Mexico Territory and Arizona, and paved the way for the Confederate New Mexico Campaign the following year. The proposal for creation of the territory was controversial in part because of the perception that the New Mexico Territory was under the influence of southern sympathizers who were highly desirous of expanding slavery into the southwest. The skirmish that followed, in which one Union cavalryman was wounded, was the westernmost engagement of the Civil War. [13], When Federal troops left Arizona early in 1861, the territory was left open to Apache attack. Battle of Valverde. However, heavy sand and corn fields interfered with this attack. New Mexico is part of of the Civil War story, as was Wilmer McClain. Confederate troops withdrew after the Battle of Glorieta Pass, because a detachment of the 1st Colorado Infantry under Major John M. Chivington had burned their supply train. [16], As the main route to California, the New Mexico Territory was disputed territory during the American Civil War, resulting in settlers in the region carved out by the Gadsden Purchase willingly joining the Confederate States of America, while much of the rest of the present day state of New Mexico remained loyal to the Union. Both Confederate and Union governments claimed ownership and territorial rights over it. It was the last engagement between Union and Confederate forces in the Confederate Arizona Territory. [6], "The social and political condition of Arizona being little short of general anarchy, and the people being literally destitute of law, order, and protection, the said Territory, from the date hereof, is hereby declared temporarily organized as a military government until such time as Congress may otherwise provide. Historians regard this campaign as the most ambitious Confederate attempt to establish control of the American Westand to open an additional theater in the w… Additionally, making matters worse, on March 2 of 1861 the U.S. Government formally revoked a contract with the Butterfield Overland Stagecoach Company which was being used to support delivery of United States mail on the overland route which ran from San Antonio, Texas through El Paso, Texas, Mesilla, Tucson and on to California. It opened up an additional theater in the American Civil War. The remaining Union troops in the New Mexico Territory were concentrated in forts along and near the Rio Grande; the commander of the Union Department of New Mexico, Colonel Edward R. S. Canby, started raising regiments of New Mexico volunteers and militia to replace the regular army units which were ordered east. Led by Confederate Brigadier General Henry Hopkins Sibley, southern troops invaded northern New Mexico Territory beginning in February, 1862 in an attempt to gain control of the Southwest, as well as the gold fields of Colorado and the ports of California. Civil War battles in New Mexico. Delegate Oury was not initially seated in the congress, but met with C.S. The New Mexico Campaign was a military operation of the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War from February to April 1862 in which Confederate Brigadier General Henry Hopkins Sibley invaded the northern New Mexico Territory in an attempt to gain control of the Southwest, including the gold fields of Colorado and the ports of California. Entries are listed below by date-of-occurrence ascending (first-to-last). 70, 226–227; Josephy, p. 85. Campaign: Sibley’s New Mexico Campaign (1862) Date(s): March 26-28, 1862. This book corrects many misconceptions that may be useful to all interested in the Civil War in New Mexico. His strategy also included taking the northern Mexican states of Chihuahua, Sonora, and Lower California, either through purchase or by invasion. This would allow the South access to the valuable gold fields in Colorado, as well as the shipping opportunities that were available via California. On December 20, 1861, General Sibley, in command of the Army of New Mexico, issued a proclamation taking possession of New Mexico in the name of the Confederate States. The New Mexico Volunteers were unjustly maligned by Edward Canby, the author said, and authors ever since have echoed his sentiments without investigating the facts. In the Spring of 1861, Sibley, a Louisianan who had just resigned from the U.S. Army, met with Confederate President Jefferson Davis, outlining a strategy to take over the American West. A significant Confederate push to seize the territory resulted in the New Mexico Campaign from February to April 1862. Originally established to control the local Apache, the post had declined over the years, fallen into serious disrepair and its troops removed. They dreamed of changing the course of the war and fulfilling their manifest destiny. The Civil War in New Mexico was fought in the deserts and mountains of the huge territory, which was mostly wilderness, amid the continuing ancient wars against the wild Indian tribes waged by both sides. Leading some 380 Union troops, he approached the town and demanded Baylor’s surrender. Union service records of soldiers who served in organizations from the Territory of New Mexico. Gen. Gabriel René Paul.jpg 250 × 340; 19 KB. New Mexico Civil War Service Records of Union Soldiers, 1861-1865. Valverde is a novel about the Civil War in New Mexico that begins in Texas. The Confederate Army of New Mexico … ", Exactly fifty years later, on the same date, Arizona was made a state in 1912. In February 1858, the New Mexico territorial legislature adopted a resolution in favor of the creation of the Arizona territory, but with a north-south border along the 109th meridian, with the additional stipulation that all the Indians of New Mexico would be removed to northern Arizona. 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